Scott Kelly’s ‘Space Genes’

According to Futurism, Scott and Mark Kelly are identical twin brothers. They’re also both former astronauts. Scott spent a year living in the International Space Station, while Mark was here on Earth. The Twin Study, as it was called, was an effort to help scientists understand the effects of extended time in space. NASA already has a pretty good grasp of what happens to the body after six months on the ISS. But the effects after a year are far more important if we’re going to eventually send people to Mars, and beyond.

Though Scott Kelly returned to Earth in March 2016, scientists are still running the data to figure out the effects on his body and mind. At the 2018 Investigator’s Workshop for NASA’s Human Research Program in January, NASA released its findings, revealing that Scott returned safely, but something about his gene expression had changed, the liquor store near me.

NASA measured Scott’s metabolites, cytokines, and proteins before, during, and after his mission. Researchers learned that spaceflight is associated with oxygen deprivation stress, increased inflammation, and dramatic nutrient shifts that affect gene expression.

Furthermore, Scott’s telomeres (the ends of chromosomes that shorten as people get older) become longer while in space but shortened again within 48 hours of Scott returning to Earth.

Perhaps the most interesting discovery is the change to Scott’s genes. 93 percent remained unchanged after the year-long stay in space, but the remaining 7 percent — referred to as “space genes” — were expressed differently (the DNA itself wasn’t fundamentally altered, as some headlines stated and The Verge notes). These changes might have long-lasting effects on the immune system, DNA repair, bone formation networks, hypoxia (oxygen deficiency in tissue), and hypercapnia (an abundance of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream). 7 percent might sound insignificant, but in fact, it amounts to several hundred of genes.

How to create linkages in Africa’s investment space

African tech space has been recently the home of more linkages since many are required to do so within it. These are both for encouraging more investments and making sure the startup that indeed raises funds in the bank are served better.

According to Disrupt Africa, the year 2017 was a record-breaking time when it comes to African’s tech fundraising. However, investors of all level are still lacking. The report also pointed out to angel investors’ case as dozens of angel groups are forming across the continent under African Business Angel Network, also known as ABAN’s, general banner. To build linkages is particularly difficult on angel investing.

Collins Onuegbu expressed his thoughts towards the matter saying, “Initially we could not get traction because we did not have enough members. We needed to build enough capacity to allow us to invest.” Onuegbu is a partner at the Lagos Angel Network (LAN) and he believes that getting enough people involved in the most basic struggle.

He added, “Doing that allowed us to expand our base. What we have done as LAN itself is still a work in progress. We are using syndicates to expand our capacity. We have a secretariat that has helped us build the structure that we need. It helps us link up with the startups and the pipelines.”

Moreover, the founder of NewGenAngels named Sean Obedih has addressed the need for additional linkage between African startups and Africans in the diaspora.

“There is a big part of the African population that lives outside of Africa. Everyone talks about the diaspora sending money back home, but nobody talks about what that is being used for. There is no infrastructure for channeling it into companies. That infrastructure to invest in things is what is required more than the money,” Obedih explained.